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The aqueous geochemistry of gallium, germanium, indium and ...

Extraction of gallium and germanium from zinc refinery residues by pressure acid leaching. Hydrometallurgy, Volume 164, 2016, pp. 313-320. Show abstract. Pressure acid leaching of zinc refinery residues containing 0.266 ...

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Extraction Processes for Gallium and Germanium: Mineral ...

Gallium is conventionally obtained as a byproduct of aluminum, and germanium as byproduct of zinc processing. An exception to this rule is the Apex Mine ore which has served as the only primary source in the world for direct production of gallium and germanium.

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Scandium, Titanium, Gallium, Germanium, Effect of pH and ...

Gallium However, there are studies on recovery of gallium along with arsenic (gallium arsenide) from the semiconductor industry (Sturgill et al. 2000) and from bayer liquor (Zhao et al. 2012). An overview of the experimental parameters and optimized conditions from batch adsorption experiments for gallium is presented in Table 5.2.

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The process will be integrated into the University of North Dakota's (UND) rare earth extraction process and will be designed to co-produce germanium and gallium concentrates. The germanium and gallium process developed will 3 be compatible with the UND rare earth element recovery process to separate, concentrate and refine gallium and …

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Gallium Solvent Extraction - 911metallurgist.com

Recently, details of a study optimizing gallium and germanium extraction from zinc residues using H2SO4 leaches was published. In the process, filtrates containing gallium and germanium along with other impurities such as …

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Aluminum Smelting Carbon Dust as a Potential Raw Material ...

The gallium concentration in the ash may reach up to 4.0 kg/ton. The germanium extrac-tion to sublimates reaches up to 90%. Carbon concentrate being the processing product of carbon dust from an aluminum reduction cell is a promising sec-ondary raw material for germanium and gallium extraction. INTRODUCTION Gallium and germanium are ...

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New germanium-68/gallium-68 generator (Journal Article ...

A germanium--gallium generator producing EDTA-free /sup 68/Ga would permit the synthesis of a broad range of /sup 68/Ga radiopharmaceuticals and thus facilitate the widespread application of positron tomography. We have investigated a solvent-extraction generator system producing the weak complex of ...

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Germanium separation and purification by leaching and ...

In this research work, extraction and purification of germanium from zinc leach residues (ZLR) were investigated. The results of ICP, XRF, and atomic adsorption spectroscopy (AAS) tests show that contents of germanium, iron, lead, and zinc within the leaching residue were 105×10 −6, 3.53%, 10.35%, and 8.8%, respectively.XRD results indicate that the main …

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US4965054A - Process of extraction of gallium from …

An improved process of extraction of gallium from aqueous solutions thereof to provide for recovery of the gallium in a very pure form, either as the metal or as the hydroxide. The process involves two extraction steps and two strip or scrub steps employing different extractant in each extraction and an acidic strip step after the first extraction and a basic strip step after the …

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Global Substance Flow Analysis of Gallium, Germanium, and ...

Global Substance Flow Analysis of Gallium, Germanium, and Indium: Quantification of Extraction, Uses, and Dissipative Losses within Their Anthropogenic Cycles Journal of Industrial Ecology, Vol. 19, Issue 5, pp. 890-903, 2015

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Extraction of single 71Ge atoms from the gallium target of ...

The small droplet size ensures a rapid 71Ge transfer from the bulk target to a small amount of gallium oxide. The 71Ge passes from the oxide film to the solution, is concentrated, and converts to germane, which is delivered to a proportional counter. We have assessed the completeness of germanium extraction in relation to process conditions.

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Gallium: A Slippery Metal | ETF.com

One of company's first projects is the planned extraction, if it proves viable, of germanium, gallium and zinc from the slag produced by, and stockpiled …

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Semiconductor Materials Pdf

Some examples of semiconductors are silicon, germanium, gallium arsenide, and elements near the so-called 'metalloid staircase' on the periodic table. After silicon, gallium arsenide is the second most common semiconductor [citation needed]

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The development and implementation of T industrial ...

germanium. The gallium and germanium ... remove gallium. Solvent extraction test work completed at CAMP for this project paralleled the Bureau's work. In …

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Process for the fluid-fluid extraction of gallium ...

A process for the fluid-fluid extraction of gallium, germanium or indium from an acid or base hydrous solution, comprising the steps of: (a) contacting said solution with an organic liguid including a mixture that contains at least 7-alkenyl-8-hydroxyquinoline having the trade name Kelex 100 and a 7-alkenyl-8-hydroxyquinoline having the trade ...

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An assessment of metal supply sustainability as an input ...

The extraction of metals is interdependent processes involving several types of polymetallic ores. For the dependent metals cadmium, bismuth, gallium, germanium, indium, selenium and tellurium, the new estimates are based on contents in poly-metallic ores, usually that of copper–zinc–lead.

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Life Cycles of Byproduct Critical Minerals | U.S ...

Project objectives are to 1) assess the overall life cycle of selected byproduct critical elements tellurium (Te), indium (In), gallium (Ga), and germanium (Ge), 2) perform an assessment of critical element resources and examine the processes and conditions controlling the concentration of byproduct critical elements by deposit type, and 3) improve understanding …

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Process for recovering germanium - Union Miniere s.a.

Process for the fluid-fluid extraction of gallium, germanium or indium from liquid solutions: : Krajewski et al. 423/89: 4568526: Process for selective liquid-liquid extraction of germanium: : Rouillard nee et al. 423/89: 4525332: Recovery of germanium from aqueous solutions: : Boateng et al. 423/89: 4432952

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Process for selective liquid-liquid extraction of germanium

The invention relates to extraction of metals from aqueous acidic liquors, and more particularly to a process for selective extraction of germanium from aqueous acidic liquors containing also at least one metal selected from the group which comprises cadmium, zinc, cobalt, iron, arsenic, aluminum, gallium and nickel.

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Global Substance Flow Analysis of Gallium, Germanium, and ...

Summary This study provides a global substance flow analysis for gallium (Ga), germanium (Ge), and indium (In) for 2011, quantifying the amount of metal lost during extraction, beneficiation/smelti...

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US4568526A - Process for selective liquid-liquid ...

A process for selective liquid-liquid extraction of germanium from an aqueous acidic liquor containing, besides germanium, at least one other metal selected from the group which comprises cadmium, zinc, cobalt, iron, arsenic and nickel. This process includes extracting germanium from said aqueous liquor by contacting said liquor with an organic medium …

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Germanium Gallium Ore Leaching with Sulfuric Acid

Leaching studies showed that with increasing sulfuric acid concentrations, gallium extraction increased to over 95%, while germanium extraction reached a peak of 71% before decreasing to less than 50%. It was hypothesized that at high acid concentrations, germanium precipitated from solution as GeO2.

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CADMIUM, GALLIUM, GERMANIUM RESOURCES IA

extraction of gallium increased to over 95 percent while ger- manium extraction reached a peak of 71 percent after which it decreased to less then 50 percent. The percentage of in- crease of germanium extraction is low because some of the ore is locked in quartz, where it can not be attacked and leached by the acid. The mine has not reopened.

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(PDF) Germanium and Gallium Extraction from …

Gallium yielded up to 70 and 64 % extraction after a 24 h leaching period using a weak acid and alkaline solution, respectively. The variability obtained in the Ge …

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A new germanium-63/gallium-68 generator

A germanium-gallium generator producing EDTA-free Ga-68 would permit the synthesis of a broad range of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals and thus facilitate the widespread application of positron tomography. We have investigated a solvent-extraction generator system producing the weak complex of Ga-68 with 8-hydroxyquinoline (Ga-68 oxine), free of EDTA.

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Acid leaching extraction of gallium and germanium.pdf ...

Extractions of gallium and germanium increased from 45.5 to 89.6% and from 28 to 52.1%, respectively, as the temperature was increased. Gallium and germanium extraction with and without sulfur dioxide in a sul-furic acid leach slurry are compared in Figure 7. Samples were leached for four hours at 80°C with 200 to 1,600 lb./ton sulfuric acid.

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Biomining of gallium and germanium containing ores ...

The invention is more particularly directed to the extraction of gallium or germanium from gallium or germanium containing ores. State of the Art In the United States, gallium is generally produced as a byproduct of the Bayer process for producing alumina from bauxite and from zinc processing residues.

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Germanium - Wikipedia

Germanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ge and atomic number 32. It is a lustrous, hard-brittle, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors silicon and tin.Pure germanium is a semiconductor with an appearance similar to elemental silicon. Like silicon, germanium naturally reacts and forms complexes with oxygen in nature.

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US4389379A - Process for selective liquid-liquid ...

A process for selective liquid-liquid extraction of germanium from an aqueous acidic liquor containing, besides germanium, at least another metal selected from the group which comprises cadmium, zinc, cobalt and nickel. This process includes extracting germanium from said aqueous liquor by contacting said liquor with an organic medium containing a diluent and an extractant, …

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THE extraction and refining of germanium and gallium

In the 1940s the solvent extraction of gallium was firstly introduced to commercial operations during the recovery of germanium and gallium from …

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Preparation of pure gallium

666JournalofResearchoftheNationalBureauofStandards[Vol.is Gallium,molybdenum,andtervalentgold,thallium,andironin ...

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5 Properties and preparation of germanium tetrahalides a ...

Germanium-68 (Ge-68) is produced by proton irradiation of a gallium metal target, purified by organic extraction and used in a medical isotope generator to produce Gallium-68 …

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US4965054A - Process of extraction of gallium from aqueous ...

An improved process of extraction of gallium from aqueous solutions thereof to provide for recovery of the gallium in a very pure form, either as the metal or as the hydroxide. The process involves two extraction steps and two strip or scrub steps employing different extractant in each extraction and an acidic strip step after the first extraction and a basic strip step after the …

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Extraction of gallium and germanium from zinc refinery ...

The first stage is performed under high acidity and low temperature and oxygen pressure conditions to leach more gallium and germanium. After the leach solution is pre-neutralized with zinc calcine, zinc powder is added to the solution to replace the gallium and germanium. The resulting material is called zinc refinery residue.

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US4666686A - Process for the fluid-fluid extraction of ...

A process for the fluid-fluid extraction of gallium, germanium or indium from acid or base hydrous solutions, in which a mixture of at least two hydroxyquinolines in various quantities is employed, is described.

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NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 10011080 - Germanium ...

A continuous solvent extraction circuit was operated for over 150 h, extracting over 90 pct of the germanium from 0.30-G/l ge filtrates containing 40 to 60 g/l free acid. Over 90 pct of the loaded germanium was stripped from the organic phase with water at 75 deg c. A section on germanium and gallium co-extraction is also presented.

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