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Sensitization of the luminescence of neodymium ions by ...

Experimental results are presented on the spectral-luminescent properties of GSAG crystals, activated with chromium and neodymium ions. The efficient sensitization of Nd(3+) ion emission by Cr(3+) ions is demonstrated along with the possibility of constructing Nd lasers with a high average power on the basis of GSAG:Cr(3+), Nd(3+) crystals.

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Scandium | Scandium International Mining Corporation

Aluminum is currently widely used in drive-trains, chassis and body panels. Each pound of aluminum substituted for conventional steel materials results in a 2.5 pound weight loss for the vehicle. Scandium alloyed aluminum could also promote the adoption of aluminum for wheels and engine parts.

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Scandium (Sc) - Chemical properties, Health and ...

Scandium Scandium is a soft, silvery transition element which occurs in rare minerals from Scandinavia. It develops a slightly yellowish or pinkish cast when exposed to air. Scandium tarnished in air and burn easily, once it has been ignited. It reacts with water to form hydrogen gas and will dissolve in many acids.

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Metabolism and possible health effects of aluminum

Literature regarding the biochemistry of aluminum and eight similar ions is reviewed. Close and hitherto unknown similarities were found. A hypothetical model is presented for the metabolism, based on documented direct observations of Al3+ and analogies from other ions. Main characteristics are low …

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scandium | chemical element | Britannica

scandium (Sc), chemical element, a rare-earth metal of Group 3 of the periodic table. Scandium is a silvery white, moderately soft metal. It is fairly stable in air but will slowly change its colour from silvery white to a yellowish appearance because of …

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Negative-ion bombardment increases during low-pressure ...

Negative-ion bombardment increases during low-pressure sputtering deposition and their effects on the crystallinities and piezoelectric properties of scandium aluminum nitride films Takumi Tominaga 1, Shinji Takayanagi 4,2 and Takahiko Yanagitani 3

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Write the formula for each of the following ionic ...

Write the formula for each of the following ionic compounds. a. aluminum chloride b. strontium sulfate c. scandium oxide d. calcium hydroxide

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Scandium Data Sheet - Mineral Commodity Summaries 2020

scandium metal and scandium compounds was imports from China. The principal uses for scandium in 2019 were in aluminum-scandium alloys and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Other uses for scandium included ceramics, electronics, lasers, lighting, and radioactive isotopes.

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Element Symbols & Names Cations

Ba barium Ba 2+ barium ion Al aluminum Al 3+ aluminum ion Ag silver (argentum) Ag + silver ion Zn zinc Zn 2+ zinc ion Cd cadmium Cd 2+ cadmium ion Sc scandium Sc 3+ scandium ion Ga gallium Ga 3+ gallium ion Ti titanium Ti 3+ titanium(III) ion titanous ion …

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Scandium - Wikipedia

In addition, scandium increases the quality of the alloy's welded joints, avoiding cracking at welds and increasing fatigue life by up to 200%. This recommends Al-Sc alloys as an excellent choice for wider use in automotive industry in perspective (future). Scandium effect on Yield Strength (MPa) for various aluminium alloys.

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WO2006079353A1 - Method for the production of an aluminum ...

Disclosed is a method for producing an aluminum-scandium master alloy. According to said method, aluminum and scandium are jointly isolated in a cathodic manner using the process parameters valid for the production of aluminum by electrolyzing aluminum oxide and scandium oxide or scandium salt that are dissolved in a cryolite melt in an electrolytic cell which is …

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US4965053A - Ion exchange purification of scandium ...

An improvement in purification of scandium through ion exchange chromatography is disclosed in which the oxidation potential of the eluting solution is altered by the addition of potassium chlorate or ammonium chloride so that removal of contaminants is encouraged. The temperature, pH and concentration of the eluent HEDTA are controlled in order to maintain the scandium in …

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Transition Metals - Purdue University

Salts of the transition-metal ions can display a very different behavior. Chromium(III) chloride, for example, is a violet compound, which dissolves in liquid ammonia to form a yellow compound with the formula CrCl 3 6 NH 3 that can be isolated when the ammonia is allowed to evaporate.

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Global Scandium Metal Industry Outlook 2021: Overview ...

According to GRD Survey data, the global Scandium Metal market was valued at 85 million US$ in 2020 and is expected to reach 170 million US$ by the end of 2027, growing at a CAGR of 10.6% in the forecast period between 2021 and 2027.

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Design, Fabrication and Characterization of Scandium ...

transducers (PMUT) based on scandium doped aluminum nitride (Sc xAl 1-xN) thin films (x=20%). ScAlN thin film was prepared with a dual magnetron system and patterned by a reactive ion etching system utilizing chlorine-based chemistry with an etching rate of 160 nm/min. The film was characterized by X-ray diffraction

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Cation/ Anion List

Worksheet for naming ions Students enrolled in Dr. Draganjac's Introduction to Chemistry (CHEM1003), General Chemistry I (CHEM1013) and General Chemistry II (CHEM1023) classes are responsible for learning the names and formulae for the common acids and common reagents and for learning the names, formulae and the charges for the common cations ...

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Optical planar and ridge waveguides in terbium scandium ...

Terbium scandium aluminum garnet crystal is a promising material which has excellent characteristics for magneto-optical devices. We report on the fabrication of optical planar and ridge waveguides in the terbium scandium aluminum garnet by using combination of helium ion implantation and precise diamond blade dicing.

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Scandium International Files Patent Application for Use of ...

Scandium in other aluminum components offers numerous property improvements, including conductivity, strength and corrosion resistance. DISCUSSION: Rechargeable lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are a ...

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Scandium | Sc (Element) - PubChem

A relatively soft element, scandium resembles yttrium and the rare-earth metals more than it resembles aluminum or titanium. It is a very light metal and has a much higher melting point than aluminum, making it of interest to designers of spacecraft. Scandium is not attacked by a 1:1 mixture of HNO 3 and 48% HF.

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Scandium - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

Scandium is a potent alloying element in Al alloys and its effect on Al alloys has been succinctly summarized by Spierings et al. as follows [117]:. The Al–Sc solid solution can decompose upon cooling, forming fine, dispersed, fully coherent intermetallic Al 3 Sc precipitates of the cubic LI 2 crystal structure, acting as an age hardener and leading to high strength, with a strength ...

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Scandium Aluminum Alloys, Aluminum Scandium Alloys ...

Scandium aluminum alloys are a winning combination of scandium and aluminum metal. Scandium is a silvery-white metallic transition metal, often classified as a rare earth element (REE), together with yttrium (Y) and the 15 …

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(PDF) Recovery of scandium from magnesium, aluminium and ...

A hydrometallurgical route for recovering of scandium from magnesium, aluminium and iron dross or scrap was developed and the extraction isotherm for scandium with HDEHP established. After a ...

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Scandium | History, Uses, Facts, Physical & Chemical ...

Scandium was discovered by Lars Fredik Nilson in 1879. It is a transition element and is widely used as aluminum-scandium alloy for minor aerospace industry. History and Discovery. The existence of scandium was predicted by Dmitri …

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Aluminium: radii of atoms and ions - WebElements

Image showing periodicity of valence s-orbital radius for the chemical elements as size-coded balls on a periodic table grid. References. The R max values for neutral gaseous element valence orbitals are abstracted from reference 1.. J.B. Mann, Atomic Structure Calculations II.Hartree-Fock wave functions and radial expectation values: hydrogen to lawrencium, LA-3691, Los …

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Topic 13 Transition Elements - ChemistryCorner

A transition metal is one that forms one or more stable ions which have incompletely filled d orbitals. On the basis of this definition, scandium and zinc do not count as transition metals, even though they are members of the d block. Scandium has the electronic structure [Ar] 3d1 4s2.

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Scandium - Wikipedia

Scandium chemistry is almost completely dominated by the trivalent ion, Sc 3+. The radii of M 3+ ions in the table below indicate that the chemical properties of scandium ions have more in common with yttrium ions than with aluminium …

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Aluminum - Home | DuPont

Aluminum is commonly found as the cation, Al 3+. Aluminum's light weight and strength makes it ideal for a wide variety of applications in modern society. Aluminum can form oxides that are weakly anionic and difficult to remove with ion exchange resins.

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Separation and recovery of critical metal ions using ionic ...

Abstract Separation and purification of critical metal ions such as rare-earth elements (REEs), scandium and niobium from their minerals is difficult and often deter-mines if extraction is economically and environmentally feasible. Solvent extraction is a commonly used metal-ion separation process, usually favored because of its sim-

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Rare earth scandium-aluminum garnets with impurity of TR/3 ...

Rare earth scandium-aluminum garnets with impurity of TR/3+/ ions as active media for solid state lasers

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Introduction of Scandium in chemistry. | AESL

As a result, the Sc3+ ion is a rather powerful acid with a high proclivity for forming complex ions. Scandium-Related Information. Lars Fredrik Nilson, the metal's discoverer, named it after Scandinavia in 1879. 99.9% of the metal was not separated until 1960. The metal is the planet's fiftieth most prevalent element.

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Scandium | Scandium International Mining Corporation

Scandium in oxide form is referred to as scandia or scandium oxide, and the chemical formula is Sc2O3. Processed scandium oxide, a white powder, is stable at ambient temperature and is the standard scandium form for commerce. Despite scandium's scarcity and high cost, interest in the metal is high and multiple high value commercial uses have ...

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Common Ions and Their Charges - ScienceGeek.net

POSITIVE POLYATOMIC IONS TABLE OF POLYATOMIC IONS H2PO4 – HCO3 – HC2O4 – HSO4 – HS– HSO – OH– ClO– IO3 – HPO4 2– NO3 – NO2 – SiO4 4– hydrogen carbonate hydrogen oxalate hydrogen sulfate hydrogen sulfide hydrogen sulfite hydroxide hypochlorite iodate nitrate nitrite orthosilicate monohydrogen phosphate dihydrogen ...

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CCCBDB list of Ions

aluminum monohydride cation: 1: ScH + Scandium monohydride cation: 1: GaH + Gallium monohydride cation: 1: BH 2-boron dihydride anion-1: BH 2 + Boron dihydride cation: 1: AlH 2-aluminum dihydride anion-1: ... Dihydroxonium ion: 1: LiCl-lithium chloride anion-1: LiCl + lithium chloride cation: 1: NaF-sodium fluoride anion-1: NaF + sodium ...

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Scandium Market Report 2021-26: Industry Size, Share ...

It has small-sized ions, low density and a high melting point, enabling it to react with elements like zirconium, magnesium and aluminum. Scandium iodide is added to mercury and metal-halide lamps ...

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WebElements Periodic Table » Scandium » reactions of elements

Reaction of scandium with air. Scandium metal tarnishes in air and burns readily to form scandium (III) oxide, Sc 2 O 3. 4Sc + 3O 2 → 2Sc 2 O 3. Reaction of scandium with water. When finely divided, or heated, scandium metal dissolves in water to form solutions containing the aquated Sc(III) ion together with hydrogen gas, H 2.

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Scandium(3+) | Sc+3 - PubChem

Scandium (3+) Please visit the Scandium element page for information specific to the chemical element of the periodic table. PubChem CID. 4534583. Structure. Find Similar Structures. Molecular Formula. Sc+3. Synonyms.

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